GEMSTONES - Their Science and Use in Vedic Astrology
by Bipul Pathak
by Bipul Pathak
Throughout the ages, the gemstones have been seen as representations of wealth and power. Symbols of supremacy like crowns and richly decorated clothes and robes have traditionally been adorned with jewels. But gemstones are not just for the wealthy or scientifically minded researcher. But these can be appreciated by common man also just to enjoy the beauty of these gems. The gemstones appeal initially due to their mysterious appeal,lustre and their colour. This makes them exquisite but their rarity, hardness and durability makes them doubly valuable. Gemstones are minerals. Out of a total of more than 2500 different minerals, only about 60 odd are commonly used as gemstones. Other minerals are unsuitable as gems because they are too soft and get scratched easily. 2. WHAT ARE GEMSTONES
Throughout the ages, the gemstones have been seen as representations of wealth and power. Symbols of supremacy like crowns and richly decorated clothes and robes have traditionally been adorned with jewels. But gemstones are not just for the wealthy or scientifically minded researcher. But these can be appreciated by common man also just to enjoy the beauty of these gems. The gemstones appeal initially due to their mysterious appeal,lustre and their colour. This makes them exquisite but their rarity, hardness and durability makes them doubly valuable.
Gemstones are minerals. Out of a total of more than 2500 different minerals, only about 60 odd are commonly used as gemstones. Other minerals are unsuitable as gems because they are too soft and get scratched easily.
2. WHAT ARE GEMSTONES
A mineral (or occasionally an organic mineral) to be called a gemstone, it must be beautiful in its appearance and colour. A gemstone has to be durable-i.e. it should be hard enough to survive constant use and handling without getting scratched or damaged. Finally, it must be rare, because its scarcity makes it valuable.
Most of the gemstones are natural inorganic minerals with a fixed chemical composition and a regular internal crystal structure. A few gems like Pearl and Amber come from plants and animals and are known as organic gems.
Then there are some gems, which are synthetic. They do not have natural origin but are made in laboratories. They have very similar physical properties as the natural gems, and can be cut and polished to imitate the real thing. Sometimes these are used as a substitute in jewellery as they cost substantially less than the real gems.
3. SCIENCE OF GEMMOLOGY
3. SCIENCE OF GEMMOLOGY
Gems are scientifically fascinating too. Gemmologists make a complete study of each stone, both as it is found in the rocks and after it has been cut and polished. That is why during the formal study of gemology, both aspects are given due importance. This makes them able to distinguish between two similar looking stones, one of which may be fake. The science of gemology looks at these minerals by way of their crystal structure and the physical properties. Everybody interested in buying gems (for whatever purpose) should have an idea of these properties.
4. HOW GEMSTONES ARE FORMED
Gemstones that are of mineral origin are found in rocks, or in gem gravels derived from these rocks. Rocks themselves are made up of one or more minerals. The formation of these rocks is a continuous and ongoing process. Gem quality minerals within these rocks may be easily accessible at the earthís surface or they can lie buried deep inside it. Sometimes these gem laden rock gravels get separated from their host rock due to erosion and are carried long distances by rivers to lakes, sea and shallow areas. The three types of rocks where gemstones are found are:
These are rocks, which have solidified from the molten rocks, which lies molten deep beneath the earthís surface. Some igneous rocks are extrusive where it solidifies after volcanic eruption and some are intrusive rocks where it solidifies beneath the earth. The rate of solidification determines the size of crystals found. Slower the rate, larger the crystal and consequently larger the size of gemstones in it.
These rocks are formed by accumulation of rock fragments produced by weathering. In time these fragments settle down and harden into rock once again. Sedimentry rocks are normally found in layers and sometimes the gems found here show these layers in them.
Metamorphic rocks are either Igneous or Sedimentary, which have changed beneath the earth due to heat and pressure and has resulted in new form of minerals in it. During this process gemstones also grow within them.
Organic gemstones have their origin either from plants or from animals. Like natural Pearls form around foreign bodies that have made their way inside the shells of marine or freshwater shellfish. Cultured pearls are produced artificially in large fisheries, many in the shallow waters off the seashores. Shells, which are regarded as gems, may come from animals as diverse as snails and turtles, living in the ocean, in fresh water or on land. Coral is made up of the skeletons of tiny marine animals called Coral Polyps. Bone or Ivory from the teeth or tusks of mammals, may come from recently living animals or from fossils thousands of years old. Amber is fossilized tree resin, collected from soft sediments or the sea. Jet is fossilized wood, found in some sedimentary rocks.
Synthetic gemstones are made in laboratories or factories, not in rocks. They virtually have the same chemical composition and crystal structure as natural gemstones and consequently their optical and physical properties are very similar. However, they can usually be identified by the difference in the inclusions in them. Many types of gems have been synthesized but only a few are produced commercially, generally for scientific or industrial use.
Because of the way the synthetic gems are made, they show subtle differences in shape and colour that help to distinguish them from their natural counterparts. Similarly, the synthetic gems have inclusions, which are different from the natural inclusions. The experts can identify them and distinguish.
ASTROLOGY AND GEMSTONES
As per the legend associated with the gems, it is said that the king of the demons Bali came to the Indralok-the Heaven. He wanted to win over the Heaven and all the Gods. In Heaven, he was escorted by Indra himself under the guise of a Brahmin seeking to find an animal for propitiation. Indra pleaded with Bali to become animal for the sacrifice as he was not getting anyone. It was getting late and his Yagna would be rendered fruitless. Bali accepted it knowing that his body was invincible. This was known to Indra as well and he did not hurt the body of demon king but hit his head with Vajra. The demon king was shattered in to pieces of gems simply because he was a unique creature himself.
It is said in mythology that from the bones of demon king Bali, Diamonds were found; from his teeth the Pearls; from his blood drops Ruby; from the gall bladder Emerald; from his eyes came out Blue Sapphires; from the juice of his heart came Lapis Lazuli; from his bone marrow appeared Karketan; from his nails appeared Catís eye; from his body fat came Rock crystal; from flesh came Coral; from skin came out Yellow Sapphire; from his semen appeared gem called Bheesham.
The legend further goes that from these gems, Sun took away Ruby, Moon picked up Pearls, Mars took away Coral, Mercury took Emeralds, Jupiter picked up Yellow Sapphire, Venus took Diamonds, Saturn took Blue Sapphires,Rahu took away Zircon and Ketu lifted Lapis Lazuli. This is the reason why these stones are worn by humans to enhance the strength of these planets.
According to mythology, all these gems had been grown by nature inside the body of demon King Bali as he was a unique creature and when these gems came out of the shattered body, it was symbol of victory of Gods over the demons.
However far-fetched this myth may sound. But one thing is sure that even in ancient times when there was no gemology or research available, people were aware of wearing gems for strengthening various planets and for propitiation purposes. In all probability, these legends started to grow as people felt the beneficial results after wearing them and in present day we hear a full myth around gemstones.
Ancient Roman writer Pliny (62-113 AD) had written that there was a very large market for jewels and precious stones on the Secundra port in Egypt. Merchants ,traders from Rome,Athens and other parts of the world used to come with their merchandise here. Jewels and precious stones with all their powers were mentioned even before these centers came into existence in Holy Bible and even before that in Vishnu Puran.
Who has not read about the great hall in which beautiful empress Cleopatra had received the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar, which was decorated with furniture studded with rare gems and Jewels. In recent history, the Peacock throne of the Moghuls was studded with jewels of all kind and had attracted many invaders . Nadir Shah came and invaded India in 1739 and took away this throne ,Takht-I-tawoos ,with him. The monuments built by Moghuls show the splendour of their times and gems were very integral to it. Taj Mahal is living example of the use of precious stones in buildings. Jade,cornelion and other gems were used by the Moghuls in plenty.
The Greek writer Thiophratus who lived in 287 BC had written a book on Diamonds and gems. After him Pliny (62-113 AD) wrote in his book on Natural History about gems in detail. In 13th century Marcopolo visited India, China, Burma and Ceylon(Sri Lanka) ,and he wrote about the treasures and jewels in these countries in detail.
Mythology and legends are not convincing to modern generation but some of the communities and cultures still have their beliefs about the usage and effects of various gemstones. About the Amber ,it is said that the jewels have been made of the teardrops of a Greek God. According to popular belief in the west, the Amber cures one of rheumatism. In Germany, the garland of Ambers is hung around the neck of the infant, so that their teething takes place without trouble. In Turkey ,people believe that by fixing Amber in the Hubble Ėbubble, the germs would not spread and will be killed even after many have puffed it.
In Greece, people think if wine is poured into the cups made of Amethyst, one does not get drunk after drinking that wine. In Rome, a talisman having Coral pieces is considered very auspicious to quell the bad effects of evil spirits. And Romans used to hang chains made from Coral to the cradle of infants to ward off evil spirits. In ancient China, rings studded with Conch or Oyster shells were believed to cure all aches and ailments of stomach.
In India also, lockets made of silver and studded with Pearls are hung around the necks of the infants to ward off evils. The Greeks still believe, if women wear the Blue Sapphires on person ,no sense of immorality would pollute their mind nor any fear of supernatural will affect them.
There are numerous such beliefs cutting across all cultures and communities, which are associated with the gems. These if written would fill volumes .But a fair idea can be had from the above that the gems had a very special place in human life since ancient times.
4. SCIENCE BEHIND EFFECTS OF GEMSTONES.
That gemstones work for the betterment of oneís life is a known fact. But many people do not believe in their effects. These days people ,especially the younger generation, looks for scientific links between the gems and their effects. All astrological reasoning fails to impress many people to accept the benefits of the gemstones.
There are laws in pure science which have not been proved but are accepted as their effects are observed by us day in and day out and they are called laws conversely also as they have not been proved otherwise. The simplest example being Law of Gravitation. It is a law because it is observed daily by us and also it has not been proved through experiment to be not true.
Similarly the effects of the gemstones are observed by those who use them under proper prescription. Since the effects are very individual in nature, they are not in the scrutiny of public and people do not believe in their beneficial values.
The gemstones have different colours and lustre. Sun being the source of all energy, also affects human beings. If we observe the sunlight through prism in a laboratory, we get seven-colour spectrum. The other invisible two colours are infra red and ultra violet. Thus the spectrum of nine colours is understood to be the cosmic matrix and is very essence of nine planets. The nine planets are associated with these colours and the stones prescribed are also in consonance. It is important to note that the wavelength of coloured light emanating from the nine planets is believed to match those radiating from each planetís corresponding gemstone. Thus prescribing gemstones is not out of synchronous with this energy system. A particular stone absorbs all kind of solar and cosmic energy and allows a particular type of energy to pass through it and which is then absorbed by the body. If prescribed properly, this actually helps the individual. This restores the balance in him ,and he finds the self-improving.
Moreover, the effects of gemstones have been proved conversely also. If a person is prescribed a wrong gemstone, it has been observed to adversely affect him as long as he wears it and the effect goes away once the stone is removed. Thus the efficacy of gemstones do not require laboratory experiments just the way some of the pure science laws do not require experiment in their support.
5. GEMS FOR VARIOUS LAGNAS (ASCENDANT)
In Astrology for every person at the time of his birth a rising sign of zodiac is unique. For every ascendant ,there is ruling planet and a corresponding gemstone is prescribed. The table shows Ascendant wise gemstones.
6. GEMS FOR VARIOUS CONSTELLATIONS(NAKSHATRAS)
There are 27 Nakshatras as per vedic astrology and each nakshatra has a ruling planet and consequently a gemstone prescribed for each nakshatra. The table below shows Nakshatra wise list of gemstones prescribed.
The stones which have been described for various planets are the precious stones and are very costly. Another difficulty is that sometimes a stone prescribed is not available. A common man is not able to afford these gemstones. In such cases, a semi precious stone can be worn on prescription which are normally reasonably priced and are readily available also. Although the cosmic results of these stones are subdued in nature but for most cases they work well and in only very few cases the astrologer would insist on precious stone. The astrologers prescribe nine gemstones for nine planets. We hereby give you the details about each stone and the semi precious substitute for it also. The chemical composition of the stone and its occurrence and connected details are also given.
Ruby is the name given to red gem quality corundum. These can be of varying shades of reds to pink. The best rubies are those, which have mystical deep red colour. The finest rubies are found in Burma. Thailand, Afghanistan Vietnam and Pakistan also produce bright rubies. India, USA Australia and Norway also produce rubies which are dark to opaque at times.
The chemical composition of ruby is Aluminium Oxide and the formula is Al2O3. The specific gravity is 4.00 and the refractive index is 1.76-1.77. The hardness of ruby is 9 with a crystal structure of Trigonal.
Ruby increases the heartís strength, body flexibility, vitality, tissue regeneration, mitosis, circulation, protection from psychic attacks, immunity. This stone decreases inflammation, bleeding, infectious diseases, typhoid, bubonic plague, leukemia, sickle cell anemia, schizophrenia, heart attack, diabetes. It restores the balance of nerves, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, spinal column, adrenals, cholesterol.
Ruby is the stone for Sun and is a precious stone. The semi precious substitute for Ruby is Red Garnet.
Red Garnet is called Almandine in gemology and its composition is Iron Aluminium Silicate with chemical formula as Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. The specific gravity is 3.77; Refractive index 1.86-1.87 and a hardness of 7.5 having a crystal structure of Cubic. This is found in garnet Mica schist and has worldwide occurrence.
Red garnet increases vitality. It decreases anaemia, inflammation, depression, psychosomatic illness, haemorrhaging, inflammation, bleeding, gallstones, kidney stones, anxiety. It helps in restoring balance of blood circulation, hormones, thyroid, white corpuscles, spinal fluid, pituitary gland, spleen.
Pearls are formed in shellfish- especially oysters and mussels. They are formed as a natural defence against an irritant, such as a piece of grit. Layers of aragonite called nacre are secreted around the irritant and then it gradually builds up to form the pearl. Pearls vary in colour from white, white with a hint of pink, brown and even black. This depends upon the type of water and other ambient factors. Natural pearls have been found in Persian Gulf, Gulf of mannar in Indian Ocean and Red Sea for very long time. These days in Japan and China pearls are made through culture.
The chemical composition of pearls is Calcium carbonate with conchiolin and water. The specific gravity of pearls is 2.71; Refractive index of 1.53-1.68 and a hardness of 3. The crystal structure is Orthorhombic. The nearest chemical formula for pearls is Ca CO3,C3H18N9O11.nH2O.
Pearl has cooling and calming effects. It increases healing, vitality, fertility, longevity, digestive power of the body. It is known to decrease the effects of hepatitis, gallstones, bleeding, acidity, irritability, anxiety, malignant cancer, bloating and pain. It helps balance body fluids, female reproductive system, functioning of pancreas, liver and kidneys.
Pearl is the precious stone for Moon. The semi precious substitute for this is Moon Stone and Opal.
Moonstone is basically Orthoclase with a bluish white sheen and hence the name. It is Potassium Aluminium Silicate with hardness of 6 and specific gravity of 2.57 and Monoclinic crystal structure. These are found in Burma ,Sri Lanka,India ,Madagascar,Brazil,European Alps and Mexico.
Moonstone is a stone used for detoxification and fertility. It is very effective in menstrual problems and restores the normal cycle. It also helps alleviate PMS symptoms. It decreases effects of insanity, dropsy, leucorrhoea, bleeding, thirst, high blood pressure, pulmonary consumption, beestings and insect bites, malaria, yellow fever. It balances intestinal tract, lower spinal column, pancreas, pituitary glands. The stone is very effective in restoring the various body cycles.
Opal is hardened Silica Gel and contains 5-10 percent water. This is non-crystalline unlike other gems and with use it dries out and can have cracks. The Opal which shows iridescence is precious and for Moon white opal is used as substitute. It is Hydrated Silica Gel with hardness of 6,Specific Gravity of 2.10 and Refractive Index of 1.37-1.47 with structure being Amorphous. It is found in cavities in sedimentary rocks and Australia is the main producer of Opals. It is also found in USA, Mexico, Brazil and South Africa.
Opal is having cleansing properties. It improves vision and hearing. It is very good for headaches. It also adjusts and balances the nervous system.
Coral is made up of the skeletal remains of marine animals called Coral Polyps. These tiny creatures live in colonies which form branching structures as they grow, eventually resulting in coral reefs and Atolls. Most corals are made of Calcium Carbonate and have red,pink,white and blue colours. But black and golden corals are made of a horn like substance called conchiolin. Out of all Red coral is most precious. Red coral is found in Japan, Mediterranean and African coasts. Black and golden coral is found in West Indies and Australia.
Coral has hardness of 3; specific gravity 2.68; Refractive index 1.49-1.66 and Trigonal crystal structure. The chemical formula is Ca CO3 ( or C3H48N9O11).
The main effect of stone is in tissue regeneration and increase in blood cells. It decreases leukemia, fever, madness, nightmares, asthma, teething troubles, sterility, constipation, jaundice, obesity, rickets, rabies, menorrhagia, varicose veins, anaemia, haemorrhaging, arthritis. It helps balancing spleen, mucous membrane, bile, spine, circulation, spinal canal, alimentary canal, nervous system, Thalamus.
Red coral is the precious stone for Mars. The semi precious substitute for this is Carnelian.
Carnelian is reddish orange variety of Chalcedony. It has hardness of 7; specific gravity of 2.61; refractive index of 1.53-1.54 and Trigonal structure of crystals. It is basically Silicon Dioxide with formula as SiO2. Best Carnelian is from India.
Carnelian increases fertility, tissue regeneration, elasticity of blood vessels and assimilation. It is helpful in reducing nosebleed, anorexia, fear, rage, gallstones, kidney stones, pollen allergies, and impotence. One of the main functions carnelian does is to balance sexual energies. It also balances endocrine system, spleen, pancreas, reproductive organs, liver, kidneys, gallbladder.
Hessonite is Grossular garnet as per gemology and is found in various colours but they are known to derive their name from their first specimen found. This had orange brown colour and this colour is due to manganese and Iron inclusions. The best Hessonite is found in Sri Lanka in metamorphous rocks or gem gravels. In Madagascar it is generally called as Cinnamon stone. It is also found in Brazil, Canada and Siberia as well as in Maine (California) & New Hampshire in USA.
The chemical composition of Hessonite is Calcium Aluminium Silicate. The chemical formula is Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 It has hardness of 7.25,Specific Gravity of 3.65,Refractive index of 1.73-1.75 and Cubic crystal structure .
The Hessonite is the precious stone for Rahu. Its semi precious substitute is Zircon and Amber.
Zircon is chemically Zirconium Silicate with formula of ZrSiO4. This stone is famous for being found in colourless form and their resemblance with diamonds. But it can have colours of yellow ,orange, blue ,red, brown etc. In astrology ,the colour of reddish brown for Zircon is used for Rahu. This stone of gem quality is found as pebbles in alluvial deposits and the best comes from Sri Lanka.Brazil,Thailand,Cambodia,Vietnam,Kampucea,Australia,Burma,Nigeria, Tanzania and France also produce Zircon.
Zircon has hardness of 7.5,specific gravity 4.69, refractive index 1.93-1.98 with a Tetragonal crystal structure.
Amber is the fossilized resin of trees. Most Amber is golden yellow to golden orange, but green ,red, violet and black Amber has also been found. The chemical composition is mixture of organic plant resins and mainly the formula is C10H16O. It normally occurs as nodules or small irregularly shaped masses. When rubbed, Amber produces a negative electrical charge that attracts dust. The most famous deposits are in the Baltic region, particularly along the coast of Poland and former USSR.
Amber has hardness of 2.5,refractive index of 1.54-1.55,specific gravity of 1.08 and Amorphous crystal structure. Amber with golden orange colour is used a substitute for Hessonite.
Amber helps in increasing cell regeneration,strenghthens brain and nervous system. It helps decrease catarrh, ulcers, soreness, hay fever, asthma, convulsions, deafness, insanity, earache, headache, toothache, rheumatism, anxiety, and goiter. It provides balancing influence on liver, kidneys, throat, digestive tract, thyroid, inner ear, brain, central nervous system, teething, intestines and stomach, endocrine system. It is very helpful in joint lubrication and provides fluidity to the muscles, increases elasticity of tendons and removes inflammation of tendons.
Yellow sapphire is also known as Oriental Topaz. It is basically Corundum and comes in many other colours as well. The chemical composition is Aluminium Oxide with a formula of Al2O3. The yellow sapphire is mainly found in Queensland and New south Wales in Australia. Even Sri Lanka,East Africa also produce this type of sapphire. The sapphire has hardness of 9 ,specific gravity 4.00,refractive index 1.76-1.77 with a Trigonal crystal structure.
This stone drastically helps in memory and learning. It is also an effective stone to decrease the effects of snakebite. It helps balancing stomach, gall bladder, spleen, and liver.
Yellow sapphire is the precious stone for Jupiter. The semi precious substitute is Golden Topaz.
Golden Topaz is actually golden yellow in colour and is sometimes called as Sherry topaz also. Although topaz occurs in other colours also, but golden yellow is in the category of gems. It is basically Aluminium Fluorohydroxysilicate with a formula of Al2(F,OH)2SiO4. It is found in igneous rocks and sometimes in alluvial deposits as pebbles also. It is found in USA,Sri Lanka,Burma,former USSR,Australia,Pakistan,Mexico,Japan and Africa.
Topaz has hardness of 8,specific gravity 3.54,refractive index 1.62-1.63 with a crystal structure of Orthorhombic.
Blue Sapphire is basically Corundum and comes in many other colours as well. But traditionally sapphire is associated with blue colour only. The chemical composition is Aluminium Oxide with a formula of Al2O3.Good quality Blue Sapphire is found in Burma, Sri Lanka and India. The best Indian Sapphire is cornflower blue and is found in Jammu and Kashmir. Montana in USA also produces blue sapphire . Cambodia ,Brazil,Kenya,Malawi and Colombia also produce this sapphire. The sapphire has hardness of 9 ,specific gravity 4.00,refractive index 1.76-1.77 with a Trigonal crystal structure.
The stone is said to be increasing eyesight, longevity, blood flow to organs. It helps decrease rheumatism, sciatica, neurology, epilepsy, hysteria, tumour, reduces fat, arthritis, nerve pains, mental illness, petrochemical and radiation miasms, excessive bleeding, emotional pain and trauma, haemorrhage. It provides balance to intestinal tract, pancreas, lower spinal column, heart, blood, and adrenals.
Blue sapphire is the precious stone for Saturn. The semi precious substitute is Turquoise and Lapis lazuli.
Turquoise is one of the first gemstones mined and varies from sky blue in colour to greenish. It is commonly found in microcrystalline, massive form, usually as encrustations or as nodules. Sky blue turquoise from Iran is the best, but in Tibet a greener variety is found. Mexico and USA also produce greener variety. Chile ,Australia and England(Cornwall) also produce. The distinct blue colour is due to presence of copper and traces of Iron.
It has hardness of 6,specific gravity of 2.80,Refractive Index 1.61-1.65 and is chemically Hydrated copper aluminium phosphate. The crystal structure is Triclinic and the formula is CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.5H2O.
Turquoise has amazing property for helping in disorders of female reproductive system. It increases eyesight, tissue regeneration and circulation. Turquoise is very effective in headaches and migraines. It also decreases fever, cataracts, effects of environmental pollution, anorexia, and stress. It balances circulation, tendons, ligaments, throat, thymus gland, and nerves.
Lapis Lazuli is a Blue rock made up of several different minerals, including Lazurite, Sodalite, hauyne, Calcite and pyrite. The colour of Lapis lazuli varies as per composition but the intense blue variety with minor patches of white calcite and brassy yellow pyrite is the best quality. It is usually found as boulders or within limestones.The best quality lapis lazuli is from Afghanistan. Argentinian stone is also of very high quality. Some different shades of blue are also found in USA and Canada.
It has hardness of 5.5,specific gravity 2.80.refractive index 1.50 with Variable crystal structure. The formula is (Na,Ca)8(Al,Si)12O24(SO4)Cl2(OH)2.
Lapis lazuli increases strength, virility, vitality, oxygenation of blood, mitosis, hearing and immune system. It decreases poison, fever, depression, melancholia, neuralgia, spasms, tonsillitis, anxiety, Hodgkinís disease. Cancer of the larynx, autism, urinary troubles, tuberculosis, haemorrhoids, jaundice, diabetes, insomnia, neurosis, vertigo and dizziness. It helps in balancing emotions, vocal cords, thyroid, esophagus, bronchial tract, bone marrow, skeletal system and Eustachian tube.
Emerald is basically Beryl gemmologically with presence of chromium and Vanadium, which makes it green .It can have various colours from colourless,blue,pink and golden yellow depending upon the inclusion. It is Beryllium aluminium silicate and formula is Be3Al2(SiO3)6. It is found in granites,pegmatites and schists as well as alluvial deposits. The finest emerald is from Colombia. Other sources are Astria,India,Aystralia,Brazil,South Africa,Egypt,Norway,Pakistan and Zimbabwe.
Emerald has hardness of 7.5,specific gravity 2.71,refractive index 1.57-1.58 with a Hexagonal crystal structure.
The general effects of emerald are relating to mind, which means it increases memory, intuition, communication and intelligence. In addition it enhances eyesight, body vitality, and immune system. It is useful in decreasing pain, cancer, asthma, ulcers, infections, childbirth pains, eyestrain, stress, paranoia, schizophrenia, radiation effects, acidity, headache, back pains, sciatica, and female diseases. The effects are achieved as emerald balances the breathing system, nervous system, circulation, nerves, haemoglobin, adrenals, and pancreas.
Green Emerald is precious stone for Mercury. The semi Precious substitute for this is Peridot.
Peridot is the gem quality specimen of the mineral Olivine. Peridot has olive or bottle green colour due to presence of Iron .It is chemically Magnesium Iron Silicate. It is found in St. Johnís island in Egypt, in China,Burma,Brazil,Hawai and Arizona USA,Australia,South Africa and Norway. The formula of Peridot is (Mg,Fe)2SiO4.
The hardness of Peridot is 6.5,specific gravity 3.34,refractive index 1.64-1.69 with Orthorhombic crystal structure.
Peridot helps body in recuperation and heals fast. It provides body strength and helps tissue regeneration. It is known to decrease anger, jealousy, stress, epilepsy, poison effects and effects of bites. The stone balances endocrine system and nerves. It aligns and balances inner body,organs,liver, astigmatism, nearsightedness. It helps in childbirth and is a detoxifier.
Catís eye is basically Chrysoberyl gemmologically. It occurs in a range of colours from green to yellow to brown. It is a hard and durable stone. This stone when cut en-cabochon, has a near whit line across the stone and gives the effect of a catís eye ,hence the name. This effect is due to canal or feather like fluid inclusions, or needle like inclusions of rutile. The highly prized colour for this is light golden brown often with a shadow that gives a light and dark'milk and Honeyí effect. It is mainly Beryllium aluminium Oxide with a formula BeAl2O4. The best stone is found in Urals in mica schists.Sri lanka,Burma,Brazil,Zimbabwe, China also produce Catís eye.
The hardness of this stone is 8.5,specific gravity 3.71,refractive index 1.74-1.75 and Orthorhombic crystal structure.
Catís eye is the precious stone for Ketu. The semi precious substitute for this is Alexandrite.
Alexandrite is also chrysoberyl with the same composition as catís eye and the same physical properties described above. The very rare and valuable Alexandrite changes from green in daylight to red,mauve,or brown under incandescent light. It is best when it is transparent and differs only that when cut ,it does not produce the effect of a white line across it.
Diamond is the hardest mineral on earth,and combined with its exceptional luster and brilliance, is the most prized of all gems. Pure and colourless diamond is the most popular but other varieties like yellow,brown,green,pink,blue and red ,even black are also found. Diamond is chemically Carbon and the formula is C. Because of the uniform arrangement of the carbon atoms, diamond crystals are well formed. Diamond forms at very high temperatures and pressures like 80 KM under ground. These days Australia is main producer. Ghana,Sierra Leone,Zaire,Botswana,Namibia,USA,former USSR and Brazil also produce Diamonds. Diamonds are graded for four "C"s for gem qualityóColour; Clarity; Cut; Carat i.e. weight.
Diamond has hardness of 10.specific gravity 3.52,Refractive index 2.42 with a Cubic crystal structure.
Diamond is the precious stone for Venus. The semi precious substitute for this is Tourmaline and Rock Crystal.
Tourmaline is basically complex Borosilicate gemmologically. The formula for this is Na(Li,Al)3Al6(Bo3)Si6O18(OH)4.It comes in various colours and has different names as well, but the colourless tourmaline is called Anchorite and is used for Venus. This variety occurs in pegmatites of Madagascar and Pala(in California in USA).
The hardness of Anchorite is 7.5,specific gravity 3.06,refractive index 1.62-1.64 with Trigonal structure.
Tourmaline helps in sleep disorders and is widely used for this. The stone decreases fear, worry and stress and helps increase sleep. It also acts as a balance force for eyes, brain, thymus and thyroid.
Rock crystal is Quartz and is the most common mineral of the earth. It is Silicon Dioxide with a formula SiO2. The crystals are usually found as hexagonal prisms with pyramidal ends. It is found worldwide but the most important sources are Brazil, Swiss and French Alps,Madagascar,USA,former USSR.
The hardness of this stone is 7,specific gravity 2.65,refractive index 1.54-1.55 with a Trigonal crystal structure.
Quartz helps increase lactation, tissue regeneration, eyesight, and detoxification. It helps decrease anaemia, jaundice, asthma, constipation, headache, fever, pain, ulcers ,leukemia, bubonic plague, radiation protection, sore throat, gland swellings, vertigo ,dizziness, burns and blisters. It balances cell salts, circulation, amino acids, protein, stomach lining, immune system, pituitary gland and intestines.
READY RECKONING TABLE
PRECIOUS GEMSTONES AND THEIR SEMI PRECIOUS SUBSTITUTES.
Astrologers all over are prescribing gems for various purposes. There are basically four methods of prescribing the gemstones. We will give the description of all the systems here.
In this system of prescription the gemstone is prescribed on the basis of the zodiacal sign in which Moon was posited at the time of birth. This system can lead to prescription of appropriate stone many times but wearers who have worn stones prescribed this way, have many times received adverse results. The basic flaw in the system is that it does not take care of the position of other planets in the zodiacal ecliptic and also loses sight of many other astrological factors. The table below gives the results of the first method . The Indian names for the planets and the stones have also been given for convenience of the readers.
In this system, the gemstone is prescribed on the basis of the sign which is rising at the time of the birth. The system has a flaw that it does not give credence to any other astrological factor. The stones prescribed this way may not give any effect at times and may adversely affect the native. The chart shown below gives a summary of this system of prescription.
In this system the prescription is based on the constellation (Nakshatra) rising at the time of birth. This system in practice has been used for prescribing gemstones with amazing accuracy. But at times it does not give desired results as this system also ignores other astrological factors during the process of prescription of stones to a native. The table below shows in ready reckoner form this system of prescription.
The most specific method is based on the prescription by a qualified Astrologer. The system takes into account various astrological factors before prescribing the gemstone. This is recommended system as it leaves almost nothing to chance and tries to factor in all aspects before prescription. The steps involved in this system are discussed below, but it should be kept in mind that a qualified Astrologer is a prerequisite to make use of this system.
Step 1.- The Lagna is looked at first and then the lord of ascendant is checked for its auspiciousness in the Rasi and Navamsa chart.
Step 2.- Then the position of the planet ruling the Mahadasha (Major Planetary Period) is checked. Sometimes the ruling planet of antardasha is also factored in.
Step3. - Then the Moon rasi is checked and the lord of Moon sign is checked for auspiciousness .
Step 4. -- Then the Janma Nakshatra is checked including the lord and its dispositor for auspiciousness.
Step5. -- Next all the nine planets are examined in rasi chart to see their strengths.
Step 6. -- Then the sign ownership of various planets is also given due consideration.
Step 7. -- The Navamsa chart has to be studied for all the factors simultaneously as it will pinpoint many hidden facts which are overlooked by looking at the Rasi Chart.
Step 8. -- Then the chalit chart should also be made to see if a planet changes its position housewise. If it does, then it should be invariably taken into account.
The above system when used by qualified astrologer will give clear indications about the type of gemstone to be prescribed for a native. Normally the stones are prescribed for strengthening the planets which results in beneficial effects. The natives who remain in touch with their astrologers as a counselor, derive more benefits. In such cases, the astrologer is able to prescribe gemstones for a particular period only to derive the maximum benefits of it. Then that gemstone is not used and another gemstone is prescribed for further period. This dynamic way of prescription is actually very beneficial and is gaining ground in modern times.Logically,some of the gemstones interfere with the cosmic effects of other gems also and thus are in conflict. Under such circumstances, this dynamic prescription of gemstones is very useful as the astrologer can derive benefits for the native from various gemstones at different points of time, without any negative effect of the conflict of gems.
In this system the gemstones are prescribed on the basis of the first letter of the name of the person as per Indian sound of pronunciation of that letter. The system gives very indifferent results and is not very popular. The reason is that, in modern times the names are not given on the basis of the astrological consultations by people and the prescription of a gemstone may not be in tune with the actual horoscope of the native. The table below gives the birdís eye view of details of the system.
In modern times it is very important to look for the conflict between various varieties of gemstones. This is more important as these days jewellery has become a highly consumerist business and most of the times the jewelers are not aware of the occult and cosmic power of the gems. This type of jewellery is basically sold for cosmetic and vanity purposes without giving it a thought that they have a cosmic role to play in the lives of humans.
Thus it is very important even for a layman to have an idea about the conflict of various gemstones so that he himself can take precaution when it is not possible to consult an astrologer. For those astrologers ,who are qualified and prescribe gems, it is equally important area of knowledge. They can prescribe conflicting gemstones at different points of time to derive maximum benefits from all the gemstones for a single native. This dynamic prescription, though monetarily expensive for the native, has been very accurate and effective tool in the hands of a qualified astrologer.
The table below will give the general conflict existing between various gems and the planetary reasons for this astrologically. The qualified astrologer, however, can take liberty of prescribing combined gemstones also. Sometimes it has been seen that the position of planets in the horoscope also shows that combination of certain gemstones would conflict. Thus, a qualified astrologerís opinion should always be sought in wearing gemstones.